Office: (217) 244-5353
Lab: (217) 244-4504
Fax: (217) 244-1648
Mail to: Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
University of Illinois
601 S. Goodwin Avenue
Urbana, IL 61801
Phillip A Newmark
Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator
Development, Pattern Formation, Reproductive Biology
B.A., Boston University (Biology)
Ph.D., University of Colorado at Boulder (Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology)
Postdocs., Universidad de Barcelona, Carnegie Institution of Washington
HHMI bio page
Planarian regeneration, germ cell development, schistosomes
Research in the Newmark laboratory utilizes the tools of molecular cell biology and functional genomics to address several major biological problems for which planarians serve as excellent models.
Differentiation of the Regenerative Stem Cells: Roles in Regeneration and Tissue Maintenance Planarians can regenerate a complete animal from a tiny fragment of tissue; this amazing regenerative ability is based upon a population of somatic stem cells maintained in the adult. How are these stem cells specified to adopt specific fates? How is their differentiation choreographed to correctly replace the missing structures? How are newly differentiated cells integrated into functional tissues and organs, during regenerative and homeostatic processes? How are stem cell proliferation and differentiation regulated systemically? We address these and related questions using the planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, as a model, combining high-throughput in situ hybridization screens to identify cell type-specific markers, with transcriptomic analyses and functional studies using double-stranded RNA-mediated genetic interference (RNAi). planarian testes lobes
Regulation of Germ Cell Development and Differentiation We are also interested in understanding the mechanisms by which germ cells are specified, and how physiological/environmental signals regulate their proper differentiation. In contrast to the commonly studied genetic model invertebrates, in which localized determinants specify germ cells in the early embryo, planarians use inductive signals to form their germ cells from the somatic stem cells much later in development. Thus, the functional genomic resources available for studying planarians can be used to examine inductive germ cell specification and the factors required to convert a somatic stem cell into a germ cell. We are currently using unbiased, genome-wide approaches to identify both intrinsic and extrinsic factors required for proper germ cell development.
Using planarians as models for understanding parasitic flatworms Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms and are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a major neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions of people. Although parasitic flatworms display several striking differences in their life cycles relative to their free-living relatives, they also share many common features. We are capitalizing on the experimental accessibility of planarians to help us understand several fundamental aspects of schistosome biology.
Wang, B., Collins III, J.J., and P. A. Newmark. 2013. Functional genomic characterization of neoblast-like stem cells in larval Schistosoma mansoni. eLife 2:e00768.
Sikes, J.M. and P. A. Newmark. 2013. Restoration of regeneration in a planarian with limited regenerative ability. Nature 500: 77-80.
Chong, T., Collins III, J.J., Brubacher, J.L., Zarkower, D., and P. A. Newmark. 2013. A sex-specific transcription factor controls male identity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Nature Communications 4: 1814.
Collins III, J.J., Wang, B., Lambrus, B.G., Tharp, M., Iyer, H., and P. A. Newmark. 2013. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. Nature 494: 476-479.
Roberts-Galbraith, R.H. and P. A. Newmark. 2013. Follistatin antagonizes Activin signaling and acts with Notum to direct planarian head regeneration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110: 1363-1368.
Forsthoefel D.J., James, N.P., Escobar D.E., Stary, J.M., Vieira, A.P., Waters F.A., and P. A. Newmark. 2012. An RNAi screen reveals intestinal regulators of branching morphogenesis, differentiation, and stem cell proliferation in planarians. Developmental Cell 23: 691-704.
King, R.S. and P. A. Newmark. 2012. The cell biology of regeneration. J. Cell Biol. 196: 553-562.
Rouhana, L., Vieira, A.P., Roberts-Galbraith, R.H., and P. A. Newmark. 2012. PRMT5 and the role of symmetrical dimethylarginine in chromatoid bodies of planarian stem cells. Development 139: 1083-1094.
Collins J.J. III, King R.S., Cogswell A., Williams D.L., and P. A.Newmark. 2011. An Atlas for Schistosoma mansoni Organs and Life-Cycle Stages Using Cell Type-Specific Markers and Confocal Microscopy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(3): e1009. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001009
Forsthoefel, D.J., Park, A.E., and P. A. Newmark. 2011. Stem cell-based growth, regeneration, and remodeling of the planarian intestine. Dev. Biol. 356: 445-459.
Collins, J.J., Hou, X., Romanova, E.V., Lambrus, B.G., Miller, C.M., Saberi, A., Sweedler, J.V., and P. A. Newmark. 2010. Genome-wide analyses reveal a role for peptide hormones in regulating planarian germline development. PLoS Biology 8(10): e1000509. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000509.
Wang, Y., Stary, J.M., Wilhelm, J.E., and P. A. Newmark. 2010. A functional genomic screen in planarians identifies novel regulators of germ cell development. Genes & Development 24: 2081-2092 (cover).